This theory refers to how individuals make ends meet, and help nursing itself, there arose the theory of Orem on Self Care Deficit of Nursing. From this theory by Orem contained in the three theories, namely:
Self-care is the first step taken by a nurse that took place in accordance with the state and continue its existence, the state of health and perfection.
Self-care is a practical activity of a person in maintaining their health and sustain life. Occurs relationship between buyer self care and self care recipients in the therapeutic relationship. Orem suggests three categories / self care requirements are: universal requirements, development requirements and health requirements.
The emphasis of the theory of self-care, in general:
- Maintenance of the air intake
- Maintenance of water intake
- Maintenance of food intake
- Maintaining relationships nursing process of elimination and excretion
- Maintenance of a balance between activity and rest
- Maintenance of a balance between solitude and social interaction
- Prevention of risks to life and health of human function
- Improved function of the human body and the balancing of social groups according to their potential.
2. Self Care Deficit
This theory is at the core of general nursing theory Orem, which describes when in need of nursing, because nursing plan of care as needed.
When mature (in the case of addiction, parents, caregivers) are not capable or self care limitations in conducting effective
Self care deficit theory applies when:
- Children’s immature
- Demand exceeds the capacity of nursing
- Ability proportional to the need but predictable for the foreseeable future, the possibility of decreased capacity and increased demand.
3. Nursing system
The theory that addresses how the needs of “Self Care” patients can be met by the nurse, the patient or both.
Nursing system specified / planned based on the needs of “Self Care” and the patient’s ability to undergo activity “Self Care”.
Orem Nursing Classification System identifies:
a. The Wholly Compensatory system
Help a whole, needed for clients who are not able to control and monitor their environment and respond to stimuli.
b. The Partly compensantory system
Help in part, required for clients who have limited mobility due to illness or accident.
c. The supportive – Educative System
Educational support required by clients that need to be studied, in order to be able to perform self-care.
d. Methods of assistance:
The nurse helps the client by using the system and through the five methods of assistance include:
- Acting or doing something for a client
- teach client
- directing clients
- supports client
Provides an environment for clients to grow and develop.
Beliefs and Values
Orem’s conviction on four major concepts of nursing are:
- Clients: individuals or groups who are not able to continue to maintain self care and healthy living, recovery from illness or trauma or in coping and effect.
- Healthy: the ability of an individual or group to meet the demands of self care that contribute to maintain and enhance the structural integrity of the functioning and development.
- Environment: The order in which the client can not meet the needs of self care and nursing needs including but not specific.
- Nursing: intentionally selected service or activity undertaken to assist individuals, families and communities in maintaining self care including structural integrity, function and development.
Three Categories of Self care
Orem’s model says there are several self care needs are referred to as self care requisite, namely:
1. Universal self-care requisite; purposes of self care universal and exist in every human being and are associated with human function and life processes, usually refers to a basic human need. Universal requisite intended is:
- Maintenance of sufficient intake air
- Maintenance of adequate fluid intake
- Maintenance of adequate food
- Maintenance of a balance between activity and rest
- Prevent the threat of human life, human functioning and well-being
- Inventories of care associated with elimination processes.
- Improve the function of human fungtioning and development into social groups according to one’s potential, and the limitations a person’s desire to be normal.
2. Developmental self care requisite: it occurred in connection with the level of development of the individual and the environment in which they live are related to changes in one’s life or the life cycle.
3. Health deviation self care requisite: arise because health is unhealthy and needs to be real because of illness or disability who want a change in the behavior of self care.
General purpose is:
- Lowered self-care demands at a level where the client can afford, this means eliminating self care deficit.
- Enable clients to improve their ability to meet the demands of self care.
- Allows the client to provide a means for dependent care if self care is not possible, therefore any self care deficit is eliminated.
If all three above is not reached, the nurse can directly meet the needs of client self care.
The purpose of nursing at Orem’s model of nursing practice adopted into the family / community are:
1. Helping clients in this family for therapeutic independent nursing.
2. Helping clients move toward act of self-care actions.
3. Helping family members to care for family members who are competent impaired.
Thus, the focus of nursing care orem’s models are applied to the practice of family nursing / community are:
- Interpersonal aspects: relationships within family.
- Social aspect: the family relationship with the surrounding community.
- Procedural aspects: a family of basic skills training so that they can anticipate changes.
- Technical aspects: to teach families about basic technique is done at home, such as the act compress correctly.